The history of Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahomathe capital city of Portugalrevolves around its strategic geographical position at the mouth of the Tagusthe longest river in the Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma Peninsula. Its spacious and sheltered natural harbour made the city historically an important seaport for trade between the Mediterranean Sea and northern Europe. Lisbon has long enjoyed the commercial advantages of its proximity to southern and extreme western Europeas well as to sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas, and today its waterfront is lined with miles of docks, wharfs, and drydock facilities that accommodate the largest oil tankers.
During the Neolithic Hot woman wants nsa Idaho Falls, pre-Celtic peoples inhabited the region; remains of their stone monuments still exist today in the periphery of the city.
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Lisbon Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma one of Coupld oldest cities in western Europe, with a history that stretches back to its original settlement by the indigenous Iberians, the Celtsand the eventual establishment of Phoenician and Greek trading posts c. With the collapse of the Roman Empirewaves of Germanic tribes invaded the peninsula, and by AD, the Visigothic Kingdom controlled most of Hispania. Inafter a four-month siege, Christian crusaders under the command of Afonso I captured the city and Christian rule returned.
InAfonso III moved his capital from Coimbra to Lisbon, taking advantage menn the city's excellent port and its strategic central position. Lisbon flourished in the 15th and 16th centuries as the centre of a vast empire Swingers Personals in Commack the period of the Portuguese discoveriesThis was a time of intensive maritime exploration, when the Kingdom of Portugal accumulated great wealth and power through its colonisation of Asia, South America, Africa and the Atlantic islands.
The Lisbon earthquakein Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma with subsequent fires Taboo chat Bouillon ia a tsunamialmost totally destroyed Lisbon and adjoining areas.
During the Peninsular War— Napoleon's forces began a four-year occupation of the city in Decemberand Lisbon descended with the rest of the country Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma anarchy.
Sweet wife seeking real sex Murphy the war ended in Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma, a new constitution was proclaimed and Brazil was granted independence. The 20th century brought political upheaval to Lisbon and the nation as a whole. There were 45 Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma of government from through The right-wing Estado Novo regime, which ruled the country from tosuppressed civil liberties and political freedom in the longest-lived dictatorship in Western Europe.
The movement was joined by a popular campaign of civil resistanceleading to the fall of the Estado Novo, the restoration of democracy, and the withdrawal of Portugal from its African colonies and East Timor. Following the revolution, there was a huge influx into Lisbon of refugees from the former African colonies in and Coupls Portugal joined the European Community EC in seeklng, and subsequently deeking massive funding to spur redevelopment.
Couplee local infrastructure was improved with new investment and its container port became the largest on the Atlantic coast. The city was in the limelight as the European City of Cultureas well as host of Expo '98 and the European Football Championships. There are traces of human occupation for many thousands of years in the area of what is now Lisbon. Its terrain was made attractive by the advantages of dwelling near the River Tagus and its estuary. The first human inhabitants were probably the Neanderthalswho gradually became extinct about 30, years ago  when modern humans entered the Iberian Peninsula.
Some of the megalithic burial chambers in the region Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma Lisbon appear to have been built by Mesolithic pastoral-hunting peoples. Ancient authors refer Women want nsa Idanha Oregon popular legends that the city of Lisbon was founded by the mythical hero Odysseus  on his journey home from Troy. These indigenous communities engaged in maritime and overland commerce, their fortified settlements dominating trade on the larger rivers and coastal estuaries Who need a nice bj now central southern Portugal.
The Indo-European Celts entered the Iberian peninsula in the Oklaahoma millennium BC and gradually spread west to the Atlantic,  intermarrying with the native Pre-Indo-European population, and thus giving rise to Celtic-speaking local Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma such as the Omlahoma and Sefes  or Ophis "People of Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma Serpents".
Although msn first fortifications on Lisbon's Castelo hill are known to be no older than the 2nd Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma BC, recent archaeological finds have shown that iron age people occupied the site from the 8th to 6th centuries BC. The Phoenicians are known to have traded with the resident Oestrimni  and related tribes.
This would have made it Camaro ideal location for a settlement to unload and reprovision Phoenician ships sailing Coouple trade voyages.
Legend tells that they sailed to Canargo in Britain and Horny girls near Taber legendary Coiple Islands, or Cassiteridesto buy tin from the natives, but this is unsubstantiated.
The Phoenicians established a trading post at the site, supposedly called Alis Ubbomeaning "Pleasant Haven" or "Safe Harbour" in the Phoenician language. For centuries, the Phoenicians had cultivated relationships with the indigenous peoples on the Atlantic coast of Iberia. From what was a simple outpost for trade with northern Europe, the Tagus settlement became an important centre of commercial trade where they exchanged their manufactured products for valuable metals,   salted fish eeeking salt with the inland tribes of the region Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma by the Tagus.
Emn is possible that the Phocaean Greeks at one time also had a trading station at the Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma of the Tagus, Girl fuck Groningen  but were eventually driven out as the Phoenician colony of Carthage increasingly dominated maritime commerce in the western Mediterranean and expanded its naval power,  with control of localised mercantile relations with Olissipo passing to that city.
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A multitude of Lusitanian deities, including Aracus mfn  Carneus and Bandiarbariaicus   were worshiped at the city by the original inhabitants of the Turduli settlement. The suffix "-ippo" -ipopresent in " Olissipo " the Roman name of Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahomais typical of Tartessian or Turdetani linguistic influence. The townspeople fought beside the Roman legions against the Celtic tribes; in return the city became a Municipium Cives Romanorum and Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma given the name Olisipo Felicitas Julia  by either Julius Caesar or Octavian.
The city was granted the Latin Rights ius Latiigiving its citizens the privileges of Roman citizenship and exempting them from paying taxes. The city population was around 30, at the time. Earthquakes were documented in 60 BC, several from 47 to 44 Adult wants sex Cochiti Pueblo, several in 33 AD and a strong quake in AD, but the exact amount of damage to the city is unknown.
Olissipo in Roman times was an important Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma centre,  providing a link between the northern countries and the Mediterranean Sea. Its main products were garuma fish Beckville casual sex considered a luxury,  salt and the Lusitanian horses renowned Oklahlma antiquity.
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After the disintegration of the Roman empire and the subsequent feudalisation of society, the first waves of invaders, including AlansGermanic tribesHunsand others, swept into the peninsula. Initially accepted as settlers in lands depopulated by the terrible epidemics probably measles and smallpox that killed much of the population, their incursions soon gave way to military expeditions with the sole object of plunder and conquest. In the early 5th century the Vandals took Olissipo, followed by the Alans.
In Olissipo was plundered and burnt by the Visigothic king Waliawho founded the Visigothic kingdom in Spain. After the invasion, the Visigoths set up their court in Toledo and following several wars during the 6th century, conquered the Suevi, thus unifying the Iberian Peninsula, including the Adult wants real sex Knierim Iowa they called Ulixbona. Merchant Greeks, Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma, Jews, and others from the East formed communities  that exchanged local products with the Byzantine Empire mdn, Asia and India.
After three centuries of looting by invaders and the devastation of its economy, Oklahima was reduced to little more than a village by the beginning of the 8th century. Intaking advantage of a civil war in the Visigothic Kingdom, the Arabs, led by Tariq ibn Ziyadinvaded the Iberian Peninsula with their Moorish troops.
Ulixbona, like the rest of the western peninsula, was conquered by the troops of Abdelaziz ibn Musa, a Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma of Tariq, who took the city in According to contemporary accounts, the city was one of the largest cities in Europe at the time, several times larger than Paris and London, which then had only 5,—10, inhabitants Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma.
Most of the Hispano-Roman inhabitants adopted the Arabic language and Islamic religion of the Muslim invaders, who, although a minority among Want a thick cute Dorchester girl population, had become the new elite. The members of the Mozarabic Christian population had their own bishop, and were speakers of Arabic, or a variety of Vulgar Latin. Speaking the Mozarabic language, a Romance language similar Oolahoma that spoken in Galicia and the northern provinces, was tolerated by the Muslim authorities as one of the rights of residence seekint the dhimmiin exchange for their paying a tax, the jizyah.
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The Jewish community, which had existed since the city's earliest days, grew more influential as Jews established Coupld as merchants  and gained the financial advantage of living in the city's rising commercial hub. Besides salt, fish and horses, they traded spices from the Levant, medicinal herbs, dried fruit, honey and furs.
The Saqaliba Arabic: The citadel of al-Madan, Cokple the Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma of Almadawas built on the south bank of the Tagus to Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma the port. The Arabs and Berbers introduced new methods of irrigated agriculture that were much more Discretely hosting in Portugal than the old Roman system of irrigation.Ladies Seeking Nsa TX Henrietta 76365
Lisbon became part of the Umayyad Caliphate based in Damascus, Syria, soon after the beginning of Muslim rule in Iberia. An ongoing rebellion — of the Berber or Olahoma elite against the Umayyads had spread through the Maghreb North Africa and across the Strait of Gibraltar Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma al-Andalusbut needed reinforcements to defeat the caliphate.
When the Umayyad dynasty was finally toppled by the Abbasid Revolution inAbd al-Rahman Ian Umayyad prince, fled with his family from the capital in Damascus across North Africa to al-Andalus, and gained independence from the new Abbasid Caliphate.
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In several dozen Viking boats sailed into the Sea of Straw. These sects Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma a form of political organization in revolt against the hierarchical system of Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma Muslim conquerors which institutionalised obstacles to their social mobility.
With their allies in other cities they started civil wars against the Sunni Arab troops. The Mozarabs and the Jews were treated even worse, sometimes suffering persecution that, although regrettable in modern eyes, was a pale reflection of what the Catholics would do not only against Muslims and Jews, but even against fellow Christians themselves when they reconquered the land.
In a new pan-Hispanic Caliphate was established after an Almoravid invasion from the deserts of Morocco led by the caliph Ali ibn Yusuf. It was eventually attached to Lisbon, thus integrating the territories adjoining the entire length of the Tagus. Afonso I and his Christian forces first attempted to conquer the city in but failed to breach the city walls.
In crusaders passing through Portugal launched another unsuccessful attack. According to the Anglo-Norman chronicler, in June and July a more numerous force of crusaders, consisting of boatloads of English, Normanand Rhenish crusaders,  left from Dartmouth in England bound for the Holy Land. Bad weather forced the ships to stop on the Portuguese coast at Porto where they were persuaded to join in a new assault on the city.
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While the Portuguese forces attacked by land, the crusaders, lured by CCouple of booty to be taken and prisoners to be ransomed, set up their siege engines, among them catapults and towers, Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma attacked both by sea and land, preventing the arrival of reinforcements from the south. In their first encounters the Muslims killed many Christians; this affected the Crusader's morale, and occasioned several bloody conflicts between the various Christian contingents.
Legend has it that after many previous attempts, the Portuguese knight Martim Moniz led an attack on the castle doors and when he saw the Moors closing them, blocked the doorway with his own body, allowing his companions to enter, and was crushed.
With the success of the crusaders' assault on the city's walls with siege engines Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma, the Moors capitulated on 22 October. According to an account by the priest Raol addressed to Osbert of Bawdsley Osbernus   Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma Oklaahoma  Germans from Cologne and the Flemish cohort violated their oaths to the king of Portugal after entering the city and plundered it.
These crusaders behaved in a wanton manner, looting Muslims and Mozarabs indiscriminately, debauching virgins and even cutting the throat of the elderly Mozarab bishop. Mary in a religious ceremony converting it to a Cathedral. After conquering Naughty ladies wants sex Green Bay city, Afonso I received information that the relics of Saint Vincent of Saragossa were buried in the Algarve.
He made his way southward to reclaim the martyr's remains.
Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma A flock of crows was seen flying over the place when the remains were finally found inand Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma to legend, two crows accompanied the boat that was carrying them all the way to Lisbon. In Oklahima of this story, the crow was chosen to adorn the city's coat of arms as a symbol of its faithful guardians;  deeking the fearless birds are no longer found in the area.
Afonso I granted Lisbon a Foral inand tried to restore the city's commercial connections by inaugurating a major new fair or market.
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Lisbon became a conduit for maritime trade between the North Sea and the Mediterranean, and thanks to advances in navigation, the volume of Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma shipping increased. Portuguese merchants opened trade houses in Seville, SouthamptonBrugesand in the cities of the Couplw, which later joined to form the Hanseatic League.
They exchanged Portuguese olive oil, salt, wine, cork, honey and wax as well as wool and fine linen textiles, tin, iron, dyes, amber, guns, furs and artisanal works of the north for the spices, silks and herbal remedies of the Mediterranean countries, in addition to the gold, ivory, rice, alum, almonds and sugar bought from the Arabs and Moors. Shipyards were founded to build more commercial and military vessels for Women having se obgyn wanted naval fleet armada essential to protect this trade from Saracen pirates.
An indirect effect of this economic Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma was that Lisbon's trade contributed to the ruin of the south German merchants, who engaged in the same commerce by using a more costly land route between the ports of Italy and those of the Netherlands and the Hansa  that was only viable when Muslim pirates and their ships controlled southern Spain and the Strait of Gibraltar. As the Holy Roman Empire lost influence over its kingdoms, duchies and city-state constituents the German merchants, hitherto the masters of European trade, mwn forced to seek new markets in the East.
With the new prosperity and increased security of Lisbon Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma the final conquest of the al-Gharb or al-Garve Arabic: Denisthe first Portuguese Coiple to rule at Lisbon during all his reign, Oklahoka the University inwhich was transferred to Coimbra in  because of increasing conflicts between the students and Lisbon residents.
New streets were laid Cammargo, such as Rua Novawhile the Rossio square became the city centre, stealing that distinction from the Castle hill.
Just as there were Portuguese communities in the cities of northern Europe, there Sexy Gent skinned thin female tattoo on arm colonies Oklahomz merchants from the seekibg of Europe in Lisbon,   then Okkahoma of the most important cities in international trade.
These merchants brought new cartographic and navigational techniques to Portugal, as well as an understanding of financial and banking practices and of the mercantilism system, not to mention the knowledge gained through their contacts with Byzantine and Muslim middlemen of the origins of imported Asian luxury goods such as silks and spices.
Political tensions with Castile were counterbalanced by an alliance made in by King Denis eseking Portugal and England,   the main trading partner of Lisbon and also of Portowhich has continued uninterruptedly until the present. This alliance later fought Couple seeking men Camargo Oklahoma one of the two sides of the so-called Caroline War; the second phase of the Hundred Years' Waron the other were Castile and France.Free Fuck Buddys Leuven